Definition

A physician’s physiology has much the same relation to his power of healing as a cleric’s divinity has to his power of influencing conduct. ~Samuel Butler

Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which works within a living system. A sub-discipline of biology, its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. Given the size of the field, it is divided into, among others, animal physiology (including that of humans), plant physiology, cellular physiology, microbial physiology (microbial metabolism), bacterial physiology, and viral physiology.

Definition

Surgery is a technology consisting of a physical intervention on tissues. As a general rule, a procedure is considered surgical when it involves cutting of a patient’s tissues or closure of a previously sustained wound. Other procedures that do not necessarily fall under this rubric, such as angioplasty or endoscopy, may be considered surgery if they involve “common” surgical procedure or settings, such as use of a sterile environment, anesthesia, antiseptic conditions, typical surgical instruments, and suturing or stapling. All forms of surgery are considered invasive procedures; so-called “noninvasive surgery” usually refers to an excision that does not penetrate the structure being excised (e.g. laser ablation of the cornea) or to a radio surgical procedure (e.g. irradiation of a tumor).

Definition

“Pharmacology is benefited by the prepared mind. You need to know what you are looking for.” ~Siddhartha Mukherjee

Pharmacology is the study of how medicine and other things have an effect on living organisms and change how they function. Pharmacology could also be defined as the study of how medicine actually works. Pharmacology is not exactly the same as pharmacy, and a pharmacologist is not exactly the same as a pharmacist. A pharmacologist is a scientist who studies how medicine actually works, and usually works in a science lab. A pharmacist is a health care provider who usually works at a pharmacy. However, there is quite a bit of overlap between these two fields. A pharmacist could be considered a type of pharmacologist. While in school, pharmacists do take many classes in pharmacology.

The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems, and Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug.

Definition

Pathology meaning “experience” or “suffering” whence the English word “path” is derived by transliteration, is a significant component of the causal study of pathogens and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis. Hence, ‘The study of paths’, by which disease comes. Pathology is a medical specialty that determines the cause and nature of diseases by examining and testing body tissues (from biopsies and pap smears, for example) and bodily fluids (from samples including blood and urine).

Definition

Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic[s], is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, spine diseases, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders.

Definition

Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology, and diseases of the eyeball and orbit. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye disease. Ophthalmologists offer a comprehensive approach to ocular symptoms and diseases.  As well as diagnosing and treating ocular diseases either by medical or surgical means, ophthalmologists offer comprehensive ocular-visual assessment, which may include the prescription of corrective lenses.

Definition

Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. As a medical specialty, obstetrics is combined with gynaecology under the discipline known as obstetrics and gynaecology (OB/GYN) which is a surgical field. Obstetrics deals with the care of the pregnant women, the unborn baby, labor and delivery and the immediate period following childbirth. Gynecology deals with any ailment concerning the reproductive organs; uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, ovaries, and vagina. A gynecologist may also treat related problems in the bowel, bladder and urinary system since these are closely related to female reproductive organs.

Definition

Forensic medicine is the branch of medicine dealing with the application of medical knowledge to establish facts in civil or criminal legal cases, such as an investigation into the cause and time of a suspicious death. It is also known as forensic pathology. Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants. Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug usage.

Definition

ENT (Ear, Nose, and Throat), also called otolaryngology is the field of medicine that deals with diagnosing and treating diseases concerned with ear, nose, throat, head and neck. Otorhinolaryngology is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons. Patients seek treatment from an otorhinolaryngologist for diseases of the ear, nose, throat, base of the skull, and for the surgical management of cancers and benign tumors of the head and neck.

Definition

Dental surgery is a broad term that refers to a broad range of medical procedures involving gums and teeth. Surgery is usually performed in extreme cases or where non-surgical forms of treatment have failed to ease or relieve the problem. Many people dislike the idea of having surgery but there are times when it is the most suitable option which will pay dividends in the long term. If you are in severe pain and discomfort then it may be the only answer. This branch of dentistry is often known as ‘oral surgery’. It includes a wide range of procedures to treat conditions related to the teeth, gums and jaws. There are several types of dental surgery:

Definition

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is a therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator. Radiation therapy may be curative in many types of cancer if they are localized to one area of the body. It may also be used as part of adjuvant therapy, to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery to remove a primary malignant tumor.

Definition

Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things. Anatomy is inherently tied to embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and phylogeny, as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine.